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Thursday, October 12, 2017

বেকারের ডাইরী থেকে

বেকারের ডাইরী থেকে
জাকিরুল হক তালুকদার


আমি বেকার নেইতো দেখার
আমার আপন কেহ
চক্ষু বুজে চাকরী খোঁজে
রৌদ্রে পোড়াই দেহ
নাইতো আমার টাকা কড়ি
নাইতো মামা-চাচা
দোহাই লাগে চাকরী দিয়া 

কেউ আমারে বাঁচা।।


ষোল কেলাস পাশ করেছি
রেজাল্ট ছিল খুব ভালই
বেকার বলে কাছের মানুষ
আজকে দেখি হয় তালই
অহংকারে নাকটা তাদের
বড্ড ভীষন উচা
দোহাই লাগে চাকরী দিয়া
কেউ আমারে বাঁচা।।

 
রোগ আর শোকে বারোমাস
করছে বাবা বসবাস
পকেটখানা ভীষণ ফাঁকা
ওষুধ কেনার নাইতো টাকা
আমি বড্ড নিরুপায়
বাবার অধম বাছা
দোহাই লাগে চাকরী দিয়া
কেউ আমারে বাঁচা।।

প্রিয়তমা যায় চলে যায়
চাকরীজীবির ধইরা হাত
আমার কিন্তু ঘুম আসে না
দীর্ঘশ^াসে কাটে রাত
হইলোনারে সুখের মিলন
পেখম তুলে নাঁচা
দোহাই লাগে চাকরী দিয়া
কেউ আমারে বাঁচা।।

বাপে কান্দে মায়ে কান্দে
আমার কথা ভাবিয়া
দূর্ভাবনায় করছে জীবন
শ্রেষ্ঠ দোযখ হাবিয়া
ঘরটা এখন তাদের কাছে
একটা মরন খাঁচা
দোহাই লাগে চাকরী দিয়া
কেউ আমারে বাঁচা।।

চিলেকোঠায় করি বসত
চাকরী খুঁজতে ঢাকায়
দেখি লোকে অবাক চোখে
আমার দিকে তাঁকায়
আমি যেন এই শহরে
জীবন্ত পরগাছা
দোহাই লাগে চাকরী দিয়া
কেউ আমারে বাঁচা।।
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Tuesday, October 10, 2017

Discuss about the Debentures as a Security for the Loan/Advance

Debenture is a document issued by a company acknowledging its indebtedness to the bearer or a registered holder. A fixed rate of interest is payable at stated periods on such debentures. In the case of mortgage debentures, a charge is created on the assets of the company issuing such debentures in favour of a trustee who is responsible to take care of the interest of individual investors.
Advantages
(i) Easy to sell.
(ii)    Not subject to violent price fluctuations.
(iii)   They can be transferred at minimum cost.
(iv)   Bearer debentures are fully negotiable.
(v)    They rank in priority to shares and mostly secured by a charge on the company's property.
Disadvantages
(i)  If interest is not paid regularly on the debentures it would affect its price and marketability.
(ii)   If the charge on property of company is not registered, the subsequent charges will get a priority.
(iii)  Debentures may be issued by companies having no power to borrow money.
Precautions to be taken while taking debentures as security
(i)  The nature of the debentures must be ascertained, i.e., whether they are unsecured or secured, the later, being preferred.
(ii) The borrowing powers of the company issuing the debentures must be ascertained, and to verify that the same has not been exceeded.
(iii) Deposit of the debentures plus a memorandum of deposit is necessary.
(iv)The nature and value of the assets charged must be examined frequently.
(v) The banker must find out whether there are any un-cancelled redeemed debentures.
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Mention the Precautions while taking stocks and shares as security

Banker must take the following precautions while advancing against stocks and shares:
(i) In the case of partly paid shares (a) the banker should never register them in his name.
(b)  He must ensure that pending calls are paid.
(c) Sufficient margin should be taken to avoid any future loss or change in the value of the security.
(d)  The banker should verify share certificate and ensure that the calls, are paid properly and entered in the space provided for the same.
Other precautions
(i)  Update the list of shares which the particular bank is willing to lend against on a regular basis.
(ii) Updating the amount that can be lent against a particular share which is called the card limit at regular intervals
(iii)                Yearly review of the portfolio or more frequent review depending upon the volatility in the capital market.
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Monday, October 9, 2017

A Banker is a debtor as well as Trustee-Explain

Ordinarily, a banker is a debtor of his customer in respect of the deposits made by the latter, but in certain circumstances he acts as a trustee also. A trustee holds money or assets and performs certain functions for the benefit of some other person called the beneficiary. For example, if the customer deposits securities or other valuables with the banker for safe custody, the latter acts as a trustee of his customer. The customer continues to be the owner of the valuables deposited with the banker. The legal position of the banker as a trustee, therefore, differs from that of a debtor of his customer. In the former case the money or documents held by him are not treated as his own and are not available for distribution amongst his general creditors in case of liquidation.
The position of a banker as a trustee or as a debtor is determined according to the circumstances to the each case. If he does something in the ordinary course of his business, without any specific direction from the customer, he acts as a debtor (or creditor). In case of money or bills, etc., deposited with the bank for specific purpose, the bankers' position will be determined by ascertaining whether the amount was actually debited or credited to the customer's account or not. For example, in case of a cheque sent for collection from another banker, the banker acts as a trustee till the cheques is realized and credited to his customer's account and thereafter he will be the debtor for the same account. If the collecting banks fails before the payment of the cheque is actually received by it from the paying bank, the money so realized after the failure of the bank will belong to the customer and will not be available for distribution amongst the general creditors of the bank.
Thus, Lastly I can say that, A banker is a debtor as well as trustee.
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Bank & Customer is the relationship of Debtor & Creditor-Explain

On the opening of an account the banker assumes the position of a debtor. He is not a depository or trustee of the customer's money because the money over to the banker becomes a debt due from him to the customer. A banker does not accept the depositors' money on such condition. The money deposited by the customer with the banker is, in legal terms, lent by the customer to the banker, who makes use of the same according to his discretion. The creditor has the right to demand back his money from the banker, and the banker is under and obligation to repay the debt as and when he is required to do so. But it is not necessary that the repayment is made in terms of the same currency notes and coins. The payment, of course, must be made in terms of legal tender currency of the country.
A depositor remains a creditor of his banker so long as his account carries a credit balance. But he does not get any charge over the assets of his debtor/banker and remains an unsecured creditor of the banker. Since the introduction of deposit insurance in India in 1962, the element of risk to the depositor is minimized as the Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation undertakes to insure the deposits up to a specified amount.
Banker's relationship with the customer is reversed as soon as the customer's account is overdrawn. Banker becomes creditor of the customer who has taken a loan from the banker and continues in that capacity till the loan is repaid. As the loans and advances granted by a banker are usually secured by the tangible assets of the borrower, the banker becomes a secured creditor of his customer.
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Who is the Customer of a Bank? or, Define Customer

The term 'customer' of a bank is not defined by law. Ordinarily, a person who has an account in a bank is considered is customer. Banking experts and the legal judgments in the past, however, used to qualify this statement by laying emphasis on the period for which such account had actually been maintained with the bank.
       
In Sir John Paget's view "to constitute a customer there must be some recognizable course or habit of dealing in the nature of regular banking business." 
This definition of a customer of a bank lays emphasis on the duration of the dealings between the banker and the customer and is, therefore, called the 'duration theory'. According to this viewpoint a person does not become a customer of the banker on the opening of an account; he must have been accustomed to deal with the banker before he is designated as a customer. The above-mentioned emphasis on the duration of the bank account is now discarded.
According to Dr. Hart, "a customer is one who has an account with a banker or for whom a banker habitually undertakes to act as such." 
Broadly speaking, a customer is a person who has the habit of resorting to the same place or person to do business. So far as banking transactions are concerned he is a person whose money has been accepted on the footing that banker will honor up to the amount standing to his credit, irrespective of his connection being of short or long standing.
Thus, a person who has a bank account in his name and for whom the banker undertakes to provide the facilities as a banker, is considered to be a customer. It is not essential that the account must have been operated upon for some time. Even a single deposit in the account will be sufficient to designate a person as customer of the banker.
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Mention the Basic Characteristics/ Features of Banking

The following are the basic characteristics to capture the essential features of Banking:
Dealing in money:  
The banks accept deposits from the public and advance the same as loans to the needy people. The deposits may be of different types - current, fixed, savings, etc. accounts. The deposits are accepted on various terms and conditions.
Deposits must be withdraw-able:  
The deposits (other than fixed deposits) made by the public can be withdraw-able by cheques, draft or otherwise, i.e., the bank issue and pay cheques. The deposits are usually withdraw-able on demand.
Dealing with credit:  
The banks are the institutions that can create credit i.e., creation of additional money for lending. Thus, "creation of credit" is the unique feature of banking.
Commercial in nature: 
Since all the banking functions are carried on with the aim of making profit, it is regarded as a commercial institution.
Nature of agent: 
Besides the basic function of accepting deposits and lending money as loans, bank possesses the character of an agent because of its various agency services.
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Sunday, October 8, 2017

Define debit card. Mention the benefits of using a debit card:

A debit card is a service provided by a bank. It is a banking card enhanced with automated teller machine (ATM) and point-of-sale features to become a debit card. It can be used for purchases at merchants. Debit cards are linked to an individual’s checking account, allowing funds to be withdrawn at the ATM and point-of-sale without writing a check.
Benefits of using a debit card:
  • The payment process at the checkout counter is made quicker and more convenient. No need to fill out a check or to present identification and wait while the identification is written down or verified.
  • A debit card eliminates the need to carry a checkbook and a lot of cash.
  • A debit card is useful budgeting tool to track purchases.
  • A debit card Don’t deplete the available cash in your wallet.
  • A debit card can be used out of town or at locations where personal checks are not accepted.
  • A debit card Reduces the possibility of loss or theft of cash. 
  • A debit card is not a loan, no interest accrues on purchases.
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Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Short Notes on Correspondent banking

Correspondent banking is an arrangement under which one bank (correspondent) holds deposits owned by other banks (respondents) and provides payment and other services to those respondent banks. Such arrangements may also be known as agency relationships in some domestic contexts. 

In international banking, balances held for a foreign respondent bank may be used to settle foreign exchange transactions. Reciprocal correspondent banking relationships may involve the use of so-called nostro and vostro accounts to settle foreign exchange transactions.
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Short Note on Certificate of Deposit

Certificate of Deposit (CD) is a money market instrument. CDs can be issued by scheduled commercial banks and select All-Country Financial Institutions (FIs) that have been permitted by BB to raise short-term resources. Minimum amount of a CD should be Rs.1 lakh, i.e., the minimum deposit that could be accepted from a single subscriber should not be less than Tk.1 lakh and in multiples of Tk. 1 lakh thereafter.

The maturity period of CDs issued by banks should not be less than 7 days and not more than one year, from the date of issue. CDs may be issued at a discount on face value.

In this, a person invests his money in COD and after the end of maturity period he receives money along with interest.
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Why would anyone invest in another country (FDI)?

There are plenty of reasons–why would a foreign company invest in any local Company?
· There could be tax incentives,
· The company believes that doing a particular business will be more profitable in Bangladesh,
· There could be tax exemptions favorable to the company both in Bangladesh and in the company’s home country,
· Or, it might be up for some concessions in the home country as a part of the country’s trade agreement with Bangladesh.
· Or, the company might be aiming at starting operations in South Asia and Bangladesh is the most developing economy in this part of the world!
 
The reason could something else too–but mostly it is related to more business opportunities, tax benefits, more profitability etc.
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Short Note on Charge Document

A charge document is a Security documents may give the lender far wider remedies than those in the loan agreement, and the lender may be free to exercise those rights without regard to the loan agreement.

Bank/ Companies which borrow money on security should not assume that the lender's rights are restricted to those set out in the loan agreement.

In fact, the security documents may give the lender far wider remedies than those in the loan agreement. And, as a recent case shows, the lender may be free to exercise those rights without regard to the loan agreement.

Borrowers obviously need to check both loan and charge documentation to ascertain what events of default they're subject to. Any different rights that the lender has under the loan and the charge also need to be checked. Given the complexity of much commercial documentation, this is a matter on which professional advice should be sought.
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Tuesday, October 3, 2017

Banking Diploma Registration/ JAIBB & DAIBB Entry Form

The Institute of Bankers, Bangladesh (IBB) has decided a new way of form fill-up for attending JAIBB and DAIBB exam. The candidates don’t require collecting printed form from IBB. From now the candidate has to collect the registration and examination form from here.

To attend the JAIBB and DAIBB exam, plz download the following forms:
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