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Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Short Notes on Inclusive Banking

Inclusive banking is an attempt aimed at taking the banking services to customers who hitherto did not benefit from banking system as a whole and were dependent on non-banking and non-formal financing options. In other words, inclusive banking means helping those who are excluded from the financial system to join and benefit from it. In this case banks are dedicated accounts for people on low incomes across several areas of the country.
In Bangladesh, government’s programs and policies seek to accelerate inclusive economic growth, focusing public expenditure outlays in developing the social and physical infrastructure, crowding in private investments in output activities. The government’s inclusive growth efforts are being supported by Bangladesh Bank’s (BB’s) financial inclusion drive engaging banks in reaching out with credit and other financial services to productive pursuits in under-served areas like small landholder/tenant farming, SMEs, renewable energy and other environmentally benign ventures. To facilitate cost effective reach out by banks to these newer client segments, branch based financial service delivery is being supplemented by mobile phone/smart card based remote delivery, as also by on-lending /co-financing partnerships of banks with locally active regulated Micro Finance Institutions (MFIs).
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Sunday, April 23, 2017

Short Notes on zero-interest-earning note

A zero-interest-earning note is issued for cash. The amount of cash (the present value) is less than the face value (the future value) of the note. The difference between the face value and the cash is the discount which reflects the interest that will be amortized over the life of the note. 
In other Sense, A non interest-bearing note or zero-interest-earning note is a note or bond with no stated interest rate on its face. Contrary to the name, non interest-bearing notes do actually pay interest. The interest is implied in the face value of the note.
A non interest-bearing note or zero-interest-earning note works the same way a discounted bond works. The note is issued for a lessor amount than the face value. After the note matures the entire face value is repaid. It might be easier to look at an example.
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Thursday, April 20, 2017

Short Notes on Specialized Banks

Specialized Banks are banks which concentrate mainly on financing specialized economic and social activities. Specialized activities may be small and cottage industries financing. Financing the rural asset less and landless people etc. Follqwing banks are the Specialized Banks which operate in Bangladesh-
  1. Bangladesh Krishi Bank
  2. Bangladesh Samabaya Bank Ltd
  3. Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan Bank (RAKUB)
  4. Ansar-VDP Unnayan Bank
  5. Karmashangosthan Bank
  6. Probashi Kollyan Bank
  7. Palli Sanchay Bank
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What is Ethics of Management? Mention the ethical activities of a manager.

‘Management Ethics’ is related to social responsiveness of a firm. It is “the discipline dealing with what is good and bad, or right and wrong, or with moral duty and obligation. It is a standard of behavior that guides individual managers in their works”.

Amongst a host of ethical activities that managers can perform, a study conducted by Barry Posner and Warren Schmidt highlights the following ethical activities observed by managers: 

1. The foremost goal of managers is to make their organizations effective.
2. Profit maximization and stakeholders’ interests were not the central goals of the managers studied.
3. Attending to customers was seen as important.
4. Integrity was the characteristic most highly rated by managers at all levels.
5. Pressure to conform to organizational standards was seen as high.
6. Spouses are important in helping their mates grapple with ethical dilemmas.
7. Most managers seek the advice of others in handling ethical dilemmas.
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Short Notes on Agreement vs Contract/ Differences between Agreement and Contract

An agreement is any understanding or arrangement reached between two or more parties. On the other hand a contract is a specific type of agreement that, by its terms and elements, is legally binding and enforceable in a court of law. 


There are some basic differences between them. The main differences are-
Point of Differences
An arrangement (usually informal) between two or more parties that is not enforceable by law.
A formal arrangement between two or more party that, by its terms and elements, is enforceable by law.
Mutual acceptance by both (or all) parties involved.
Validity based on
Mutual acceptance by both (or all) parties involved.
Need to be in writing?
No, except for some specific kinds of contracts, such as those involving land or which cannot be completed within one year.
Consideration required
An agreement that lacks any of the required elements of a contract has no legal effect.
Legal effect
A contract is legally binding and its terms may be enforceable in a court of law.
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Monday, April 3, 2017

85th Banking Diploma Exam Routine June, 2017

The Institute of Bankers, Bangladesh has published the 85th Banking Diploma Exam Routine June, 2017 which will be held on May from 09-06-2016 to 07-07-2017. The Exam will be held on different district exam centers along with Dhaka of whole Bangladesh. Few days ago the 84th Banking Diploma BD December  2016 Result has been published. The last date of submitting Diploma Exam entry form is April 14, 2017. 

The Routine has been given below. Please note down the IBB Exam Routine.

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85th Banking Diploma Examination June 2017 notice

The Institute of Bankers, Bangladesh (IBB) has been published the 83rd Banking Diploma Examination June 2017 notice. The examination will be held from 09-06-2016 to 07-07-2017. The detailed form fill-up procedure of JAIBB and DAIBB examination has described in that notice. The candidate does not collect printed form to appear JAIBB or DAIBB Banking Diploma Examination. The candidate has to print the form from the website of The Institute of Bankers, Bangladesh (IBB).

The details notice is-

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Wednesday, March 8, 2017

84th Banking Diploma Examination, December 2016 Result

84th Banking Diploma Examination, December 2016 Result will be published soon. The Institute of Bankers Bangladesh will publishes the JAIBB and DAIBB exam’s result at March, 2017.  The 84th JAIBB and DAIBB Banking Diploma Examination was held in 23rd December 2015 to 13th January 2017.
The details result will published here

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Friday, February 24, 2017

Merit Rating (OM Short Notes, JAIBB Exam-May-2016)

The success of human resources management very much depends on the strict adherence to the scientific techniques of manpower planning, job evaluation, merit rating etc.
The performance appraisal or merit rating is the systematic and pre-planned process of determining how well an employee does his job as compared to a set of standard. It is necessary that such evaluation and assessment of the performance capabilities, competence and merit of the employee is made from time to time. The merit rating studies and surveys assist in an in depth and analytical enquiry, investigation and measurement of the worth of the individual employees and their contribution in the job and the organization. On the basis of the quantification of various qualitative attributes or factors which reveal the capability of an employee to produce in terms of quantity, quality, saving of time and cost in performing the given operations the merit rating of the employee is made which provides requisite knowledge as to what he is, how does he do his job and how much potentiality does he possess.
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Wednesday, December 21, 2016

ব্যাস্টিক অর্থনীতি কাকে বলে?

ব্যাস্টিক অর্থনীতি মুলতঃ ব্যক্তি এবং ফার্ম এর অর্থনৈতিক আচরণ নিয়ে এবং তাদের পারস্পরিক সম্পর্ক বাজার, বিরাজমান দুস্প্র্রাপ্যতা ও সরকারি নিয়মাবলির মাধ্যমে বিশ্লেষণ করে। ব্যাস্টিক অর্থনীতি হচ্ছে অর্থনীতির একটি শাখা যা ব্যক্তি, পরিবার ও ফার্ম কিভাবে বাজারে তাদের বণ্টনকৃত সীমিত সম্পদ নিয়ে সিদ্ধান্ত গ্রহণ করে তা নিয়ে আলোচনা করে। বাজার বলতে এখানে দ্রব্য অথবা সেবাসমূহকে বোঝায় যা কেনা-বেচা করা হয়। দ্রব্য অথবা সেবাসমূহের চাহিদা ও যোগান এইসব সিদ্ধান্ত ও আচরণের উপর কী-ভাবে প্রভাব ফেলে ব্যাস্টিক অর্থনীতি তা নিরীক্ষা করে। বাজারে অবশ্যই একটি দ্রব্য বিদ্যমান থাকবে। এই তত্ত্বে প্রতিটি উপাদানকে ক্রেতা সামগ্রিক চাহিদার পরিমাণকে বিবেচনা করে এবং বিক্রেতা সামগ্রিক যোগানের পরিমাণকে বিবেচনা করে। দাম ও চাহিদার উপর ভিত্তি করে বাজার ভারসাম্যে পৌছে। বৃহৎ দৃষ্টিতে একে চাহিদা এবং যোগানের বিশ্লেষণ বলা হয়। বাজার কাঠামো যেমন পূর্ণ প্রতিযোগিতা এবং একচেটিয়া বাজার আচরণ ও অর্থনৈতিক ইফিসিয়েন্সি এর জন্য বাধাস্বরূপ।সাধারণ অণুমিত শর্ত থেকে যখন বিশ্লেষণ আরম্ভ হয় এবং বাজারের আন্যান্য আচরণ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে, তাকে আংশিক ভারসাম্য বিশ্লেষণ বলা হয়। সাধারণ ভারসাম্য তত্ত্বে বিভিন্ন বাজারের পরিবর্তন এবং সকল বাজারের সামগ্রিক পরিবর্তন এবং ভারসাম্যের বিপরীতে তাদের গতিবিধি ও আন্তঃসম্পর্ক বিবেচনা করা হয়।
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Sunday, September 25, 2016

ব্যাংকার জীবন নিয়ে একটি কবিতা

জাকিরুল হক তালুকদার

হয়তোবা জীবনের কোন এক ধাপে
জড়িয়েছি নিষ্ঠুর কোন এক পাপে
তা না হলে করি কেন ব্যাংক এর জব
হারিয়েছি শখ-স্বাদ যৌবন সব?

অন্যের টাকা কড়ি দিন রাত গুনি
নিজ ঘরে সুখ নেই হাহাকার শুনি
নিজ বুকে যত ব্যথা যত থাক দুঃখ
হাসি হাসি মুখ নিয়ে সেবাটাই মুখ্য।

বউ আর ছেলে মেয়ে ঘরে আছে তবু
তাদের খবর নেয়া হয়নাতো কভূ
খাবারের সময়টা দুপুরেতে লেখা
দিন শেষে লাঞ্চ করি আমি একা একা।

কাজ বেশি ব্যস্ততা দেয়নাতো ছাড়
বাঁচা - মরার খবর কেবা রাখে কার
দুপুরের সুর্যটা হয়নাতো দেখা
মনে বড় কষ্ট চোখে বলি রেখা।

উপরের নির্দেশ, উপরের মন্ত্রে
হাত- চোখ পড়ে থাকে গণনার যন্ত্রে
নই কেউ মেশিন আর নই কোন যন্তর
আমাদেরও আছে বাবা ছোট এক অন্তর।

তবু যদি হয় ভুল কোন এক কাজে
শাস্তিটা পেতে হয় খুব বেশী বাজে
গ্রাহকের চোখ লাল, বস এর ঝাড়ি
মন চায় চাকরীটা ছেড়ে চলি বাড়ি।

হয়তোবা মাস শেষে বেতনটা ঢের আনি
পেশাটা আবার বলি ব্যাংকের কেরানী

এর চেয়ে ঢের ভালো দালালীটা করা
প্রতিদিন একখান মক্কেল ধরা।
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Thursday, April 21, 2016

Discuss the Need of IT Audit

Management employing the use of information systems have objectives and expectations of what they intend to achieve from the large investment made in utilizing technology. Reasons for implementing ICT within the organization include the desire to obtain business value through reduced costs, greater effectiveness, enhanced efficiency and/or increased service delivery. It is against these objectives that an IT auditor is required to provide management assurance. 

Typically, management’s goals and objectives in utilizing technology to support business processes include: 
• Confidentiality; 
• Integrity; 
• Availability; 
• Reliability; and 
• Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements. 
Underpinning these goals and objectives is the need to ensure information technology, and the controls supporting such technology, assists the organization to achieve its business objectives (effectiveness) with appropriate use of resources (efficiency).

• Confidentiality

Confidentiality concerns the protection of sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. Consideration needs to be given to the level of sensitivity to the data, as this will determine how stringent controls over its access should be. Management need assurance of the organization’s ability to maintain information confidential, as compromises in confidentiality could lead to significant public reputation harm, particularly where the information relates to sensitive client data.

• Integrity

Integrity refers to the accuracy and completeness of information as well as to its validity in accordance with business values and expectations. This is an important audit objective to gain assurance on because it provides assurance to both management and external report users that the information produced by the organization’s information systems can be relied and trusted upon to make business decisions.

• Availability
Availability relates to information being available when required by the business process now and in the future. It also concerns the safeguarding of necessary resources and associated capabilities. Given the high-risk nature of keeping important information stored on computer systems, it is important that organizations gain assurance that the information they need for decision-making is available when required. This implies ensuring that the organization has measures in place to ensure business continuity and ensuring that recovery can be made in a timely manner from disasters so that information is available to users as and when required.

• Reliability
Reliability refers to the degree of consistency of a system or the ability of a system (or component) to perform its required function under stated conditions. Reliability is an important audit objective in order to provide assurance that the system consistently operates and performs its stated functions as expected.

• Compliance with Legal and Regulatory Requirements

Compliance deals with complying with those laws, regulations and contractual obligations to which the business process is subject, that is, externally imposed business criteria. Management and key stakeholders require assurance that necessary compliance procedures have been put in place, as there is a potential risk that the organization could incur penalties should legal and regulatory procedures not be enforced.
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Definition of IT Audit

IT audit is the process of collecting and evaluating evidence to determine whether a computer system has been designed to maintain data integrity, safeguard assets, allows organizational goals to be achieved effectively and uses resources efficiently. An effective information system leads the organization to achieve its objectives and an efficient information system uses minimum resources in achieving the required objectives. IT auditors must know the characteristics of users of the information system and the decision-making environment in the auditee organization while evaluating the effectiveness of any system. Use of computer facilities has brought about radically different ways of processing, recording and controlling information and has combined many previously separated functions.

The potential for material systems error has thereby been greatly increased causing great costs to the organization. The highly repetitive nature of many computer applications means that small errors may lead to large losses. For example, an error in the calculation of income tax to be paid by employees in a manual system will not occur in each case, but once an error is introduced in a computerized system, it will affect each case. This makes it imperative for the auditor to test the invisible processes and to identify the vulnerabilities in a computer information system, as through errors and irregularities, the costs involved can be high.

Increasing use of computers for processing organizational data has added new scope to the review and evaluation of internal controls for audit purposes. The IT internal controls are of great value in any computerized system and it is an important task for an auditor to see that not only adequate controls exist, but that they also work effectively to ensure results and achieve objectives. Also internal controls should be commensurate with the risk assessed so as to reduce the impact of identified risks to acceptable levels. IT auditors need to evaluate the adequacy of internal controls in computer systems to mitigate the risk of loss due to errors, fraud and other acts and disasters or incidents that cause the system to be unavailable.
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Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Types of Computers based on Principles of Operation/performance

There are three different types of computers according to the principles of operation. Those three types of computers are
• Analog Computers
• Digital Computers
• Hybrid Computers

Analog Computers
Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous range of values. The results given by the analog computers will only be approximate since they deal with quantities that vary continuously. It generally deals with physical variables such as voltage, pressure, temperature, speed, etc.

Digital Computers
On the other hand a digital computer operates on digital data such as numbers. It uses binary number system in which there are only two digits 0 and 1. Each one is called a bit. The digital computer is designed using digital circuits in which there are two levels for an input or output signal. These two levels are known as logic 0 and logic 1. Digital Computers can give more accurate and faster results. Digital computer is well suited for solving complex problems in engineering and technology. Hence digital computers have an increasing use in the field of design, research and data processing.
Based on the purpose, Digital computers can be further classified as,
• General Purpose Computers
• Special Purpose Computers

Special purpose computer is one that is built for a specific application. General purpose computers are used for any type of applications. They can store different programs and do the jobs as per the instructions specified on those programs. Most of the computers that we see today, are general purpose computers. 

Hybrid Computers
A hybrid computer combines the desirable features of analog and digital computers. It is mostly used for automatic operations of complicated physical processes and machines. Now-a-days analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are used for transforming the data into suitable form for either type of computation. For example, in hospital’s ICU, analog devices might measure the patients temperature, blood pressure and other vital signs. These measurements which are in analog might then be converted into numbers and supplied to digital components in the system. These components are used to monitor the patient’s vital sign and send signals if any abnormal readings are detected. Hybrid computers are mainly used for specialized tasks.
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Types of Computers based on Configuration/ construction/ capacity/ size

There are five different types of computers when we classify them based on their performance and capacity. The four types are-
     Super Computers
    Mainframe Computers
    Mini Computers
    Micro Computers
    Micro Processors

Super Computers
When we talk about types of computers, the first type that comes to our mind would be Super computers. They are the best in terms of processing capacity and also the most expensive ones. These computers can process billions of instructions per second. Normally, they will be used for applications which require intensive numerical computations such as stock analysis, weather forecasting etc. Other uses of supercomputers are scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). Perhaps the best known super computer manufacturer is Cray Research. Some of the "traditional" companies which produce super computers are Cray, IBM and Hewlett-Packard. As of July 2009, the IBM Roadrunner, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is the fastest super computer in the world.

Mainframe Computers
Mainframe computers can also process data at very high speeds vi.e., hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive. Normally, they are used in banking, airlines and railways etc for their applications.

Mini Computers
Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. They are also less expensive than mainframe computers. Some of the features of mainframes will not be available in mini computers. Hence, their performance also will be less than that of mainframes.

Micro Computers
The invention of microprocessor (single chip CPU) gave birth to the much cheaper micro computers. They are further classified into
• Desktop Computers
• Laptop Computers
• Handheld Computers(PDAs)

a) Desktop Computers: Today the Desktop computers are the most popular computer systems. These desktop computers are also known as personal computers or simply PCs. They are usually easier to use and more affordable. They are normally intended for individual users for their word processing and other small application requirements.

b) Laptop Computers: Laptop computers are portable computers. They are lightweight computers with a thin screen. They are also called as notebook computers because of their small size. They can operate on batteries and hence are very popular with travellers. The screen folds down onto the keyboard when not in use.

c) Handheld Computers: Handheld computers or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are pen-based and also battery-powered. They are small and can be carried anywhere. They use a pen like stylus and accept handwritten input directly on the screen. They are not as powerful as desktops or laptops but they are used for scheduling appointments,storing addresses and playing games. They have touch screens which we use with a finger or a stylus.


Microprocessors are what you find in DVD players, IPods, and other small devices.
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Monday, April 4, 2016

Discuss the Limitations of Computers

1. The computer can only perform the tasks you ask it to. You cannot expect a computer to be smarter than the person running it, though it can sometimes seem that way. Basically, as the person running it you have to tell the computer what tasks you want it to do. Yes, there are processes in the background, but these run based on preset information built in to the operating system.

2. A computer cannot generate information by itself. You have to give the computer operations, and even new instructions from time to time. Updates for example are a way to get new information to your computer to help streamline its functionality, but you still have to feed it that information by having an internet connection and automatic updates.

3. If you give the computer wrong data it is going to give you wrong information. The computer can only work with what you give it. It is just like giving directions to someone. If you tell someone to go right when they should have gone left, you are giving them the wrong information and they will not be able to find you.

4. Computers are unable to correct wrong instructions. The computer is always going to depend on your instructions, so you have to correct your mistake if you want it to work right.

5. Overall, a computer was built by humans and new technology comes out all the time. Hardware will eventually fade out and deteriorate. Given these properties it can be hard for a computer to remain a primo machine. These are five limitations computers have. There are more, but note most are based on human interaction with the computer, thus humans are part of the limitation a computer will have.
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Explain the Capabilities of a Computer

Capability is that it can do anything, as required and programmed by the programmers, and users. but the major limitation is that we, the Human cannot fill life into it.

Capabilities of computers

a. Its speed because it can process data faster

b. It repetitiveness because it can perform same operation tirelessly

c. Its accuracy because it have specific results

d. It can perform logical operations

e. It can store and recall info because it has data storage capability

f. Its self checking for it can verifies the accuracy of its own

g. Its self operating because its capable of executing instructions
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