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Wednesday, March 8, 2017

84th Banking Diploma Examination, December 2016 Result

84th Banking Diploma Examination, December 2016 Result will be published soon. The Institute of Bankers Bangladesh will publishes the JAIBB and DAIBB exam’s result at March, 2017.  The 84th JAIBB and DAIBB Banking Diploma Examination was held in 23rd December 2015 to 13th January 2017.
 
The details result will published here

 
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Friday, February 24, 2017

Merit Rating (OM Short Notes, JAIBB Exam-May-2016)



The success of human resources management very much depends on the strict adherence to the scientific techniques of manpower planning, job evaluation, merit rating etc.
The performance appraisal or merit rating is the systematic and pre-planned process of determining how well an employee does his job as compared to a set of standard. It is necessary that such evaluation and assessment of the performance capabilities, competence and merit of the employee is made from time to time. The merit rating studies and surveys assist in an in depth and analytical enquiry, investigation and measurement of the worth of the individual employees and their contribution in the job and the organization. On the basis of the quantification of various qualitative attributes or factors which reveal the capability of an employee to produce in terms of quantity, quality, saving of time and cost in performing the given operations the merit rating of the employee is made which provides requisite knowledge as to what he is, how does he do his job and how much potentiality does he possess.
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Wednesday, December 21, 2016

ব্যাস্টিক অর্থনীতি কাকে বলে?

ব্যাস্টিক অর্থনীতি মুলতঃ ব্যক্তি এবং ফার্ম এর অর্থনৈতিক আচরণ নিয়ে এবং তাদের পারস্পরিক সম্পর্ক বাজার, বিরাজমান দুস্প্র্রাপ্যতা ও সরকারি নিয়মাবলির মাধ্যমে বিশ্লেষণ করে। ব্যাস্টিক অর্থনীতি হচ্ছে অর্থনীতির একটি শাখা যা ব্যক্তি, পরিবার ও ফার্ম কিভাবে বাজারে তাদের বণ্টনকৃত সীমিত সম্পদ নিয়ে সিদ্ধান্ত গ্রহণ করে তা নিয়ে আলোচনা করে। বাজার বলতে এখানে দ্রব্য অথবা সেবাসমূহকে বোঝায় যা কেনা-বেচা করা হয়। দ্রব্য অথবা সেবাসমূহের চাহিদা ও যোগান এইসব সিদ্ধান্ত ও আচরণের উপর কী-ভাবে প্রভাব ফেলে ব্যাস্টিক অর্থনীতি তা নিরীক্ষা করে। বাজারে অবশ্যই একটি দ্রব্য বিদ্যমান থাকবে। এই তত্ত্বে প্রতিটি উপাদানকে ক্রেতা সামগ্রিক চাহিদার পরিমাণকে বিবেচনা করে এবং বিক্রেতা সামগ্রিক যোগানের পরিমাণকে বিবেচনা করে। দাম ও চাহিদার উপর ভিত্তি করে বাজার ভারসাম্যে পৌছে। বৃহৎ দৃষ্টিতে একে চাহিদা এবং যোগানের বিশ্লেষণ বলা হয়। বাজার কাঠামো যেমন পূর্ণ প্রতিযোগিতা এবং একচেটিয়া বাজার আচরণ ও অর্থনৈতিক ইফিসিয়েন্সি এর জন্য বাধাস্বরূপ।সাধারণ অণুমিত শর্ত থেকে যখন বিশ্লেষণ আরম্ভ হয় এবং বাজারের আন্যান্য আচরণ অপরিবর্তিত থাকে, তাকে আংশিক ভারসাম্য বিশ্লেষণ বলা হয়। সাধারণ ভারসাম্য তত্ত্বে বিভিন্ন বাজারের পরিবর্তন এবং সকল বাজারের সামগ্রিক পরিবর্তন এবং ভারসাম্যের বিপরীতে তাদের গতিবিধি ও আন্তঃসম্পর্ক বিবেচনা করা হয়।
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Sunday, September 25, 2016

ব্যাংকার জীবন নিয়ে একটি কবিতা

ব্যাংকার
জাকিরুল হক তালুকদার

হয়তোবা জীবনের কোন এক ধাপে
জড়িয়েছি নিষ্ঠুর কোন এক পাপে
তা না হলে করি কেন ব্যাংক এর জব
হারিয়েছি শখ-স্বাদ যৌবন সব?


অন্যের টাকা কড়ি দিন রাত গুনি
নিজ ঘরে সুখ নেই হাহাকার শুনি
নিজ বুকে যত ব্যথা যত থাক দুঃখ
হাসি হাসি মুখ নিয়ে সেবাটাই মুখ্য।


বউ আর ছেলে মেয়ে ঘরে আছে তবু
তাদের খবর নেয়া হয়নাতো কভূ
খাবারের সময়টা দুপুরেতে লেখা
দিন শেষে লাঞ্চ করি আমি একা একা।


কাজ বেশি ব্যস্ততা দেয়নাতো ছাড়
বাঁচা - মরার খবর কেবা রাখে কার
দুপুরের সুর্যটা হয়নাতো দেখা
মনে বড় কষ্ট চোখে বলি রেখা।


উপরের নির্দেশ, উপরের মন্ত্রে
হাত- চোখ পড়ে থাকে গণনার যন্ত্রে
নই কেউ মেশিন আর নই কোন যন্তর
আমাদেরও আছে বাবা ছোট এক অন্তর।


তবু যদি হয় ভুল কোন এক কাজে
শাস্তিটা পেতে হয় খুব বেশী বাজে
গ্রাহকের চোখ লাল, বস এর ঝাড়ি
মন চায় চাকরীটা ছেড়ে চলি বাড়ি।


হয়তোবা মাস শেষে বেতনটা ঢের আনি
পেশাটা আবার বলি ব্যাংকের কেরানী


এর চেয়ে ঢের ভালো দালালীটা করা
প্রতিদিন একখান মক্কেল ধরা।
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Thursday, April 21, 2016

Discuss the Need of IT Audit

Management employing the use of information systems have objectives and expectations of what they intend to achieve from the large investment made in utilizing technology. Reasons for implementing ICT within the organization include the desire to obtain business value through reduced costs, greater effectiveness, enhanced efficiency and/or increased service delivery. It is against these objectives that an IT auditor is required to provide management assurance. 

Typically, management’s goals and objectives in utilizing technology to support business processes include: 
• Confidentiality; 
• Integrity; 
• Availability; 
• Reliability; and 
• Compliance with legal and regulatory requirements. 
Underpinning these goals and objectives is the need to ensure information technology, and the controls supporting such technology, assists the organization to achieve its business objectives (effectiveness) with appropriate use of resources (efficiency).

• Confidentiality

Confidentiality concerns the protection of sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure. Consideration needs to be given to the level of sensitivity to the data, as this will determine how stringent controls over its access should be. Management need assurance of the organization’s ability to maintain information confidential, as compromises in confidentiality could lead to significant public reputation harm, particularly where the information relates to sensitive client data.

• Integrity

Integrity refers to the accuracy and completeness of information as well as to its validity in accordance with business values and expectations. This is an important audit objective to gain assurance on because it provides assurance to both management and external report users that the information produced by the organization’s information systems can be relied and trusted upon to make business decisions.

• Availability
Availability relates to information being available when required by the business process now and in the future. It also concerns the safeguarding of necessary resources and associated capabilities. Given the high-risk nature of keeping important information stored on computer systems, it is important that organizations gain assurance that the information they need for decision-making is available when required. This implies ensuring that the organization has measures in place to ensure business continuity and ensuring that recovery can be made in a timely manner from disasters so that information is available to users as and when required.

• Reliability
Reliability refers to the degree of consistency of a system or the ability of a system (or component) to perform its required function under stated conditions. Reliability is an important audit objective in order to provide assurance that the system consistently operates and performs its stated functions as expected.

• Compliance with Legal and Regulatory Requirements

Compliance deals with complying with those laws, regulations and contractual obligations to which the business process is subject, that is, externally imposed business criteria. Management and key stakeholders require assurance that necessary compliance procedures have been put in place, as there is a potential risk that the organization could incur penalties should legal and regulatory procedures not be enforced.
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Definition of IT Audit

IT audit is the process of collecting and evaluating evidence to determine whether a computer system has been designed to maintain data integrity, safeguard assets, allows organizational goals to be achieved effectively and uses resources efficiently. An effective information system leads the organization to achieve its objectives and an efficient information system uses minimum resources in achieving the required objectives. IT auditors must know the characteristics of users of the information system and the decision-making environment in the auditee organization while evaluating the effectiveness of any system. Use of computer facilities has brought about radically different ways of processing, recording and controlling information and has combined many previously separated functions.

The potential for material systems error has thereby been greatly increased causing great costs to the organization. The highly repetitive nature of many computer applications means that small errors may lead to large losses. For example, an error in the calculation of income tax to be paid by employees in a manual system will not occur in each case, but once an error is introduced in a computerized system, it will affect each case. This makes it imperative for the auditor to test the invisible processes and to identify the vulnerabilities in a computer information system, as through errors and irregularities, the costs involved can be high.

Increasing use of computers for processing organizational data has added new scope to the review and evaluation of internal controls for audit purposes. The IT internal controls are of great value in any computerized system and it is an important task for an auditor to see that not only adequate controls exist, but that they also work effectively to ensure results and achieve objectives. Also internal controls should be commensurate with the risk assessed so as to reduce the impact of identified risks to acceptable levels. IT auditors need to evaluate the adequacy of internal controls in computer systems to mitigate the risk of loss due to errors, fraud and other acts and disasters or incidents that cause the system to be unavailable.
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Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Types of Computers based on Principles of Operation/performance

There are three different types of computers according to the principles of operation. Those three types of computers are
• Analog Computers
• Digital Computers
• Hybrid Computers

Analog Computers
Analog Computer is a computing device that works on continuous range of values. The results given by the analog computers will only be approximate since they deal with quantities that vary continuously. It generally deals with physical variables such as voltage, pressure, temperature, speed, etc.

Digital Computers
On the other hand a digital computer operates on digital data such as numbers. It uses binary number system in which there are only two digits 0 and 1. Each one is called a bit. The digital computer is designed using digital circuits in which there are two levels for an input or output signal. These two levels are known as logic 0 and logic 1. Digital Computers can give more accurate and faster results. Digital computer is well suited for solving complex problems in engineering and technology. Hence digital computers have an increasing use in the field of design, research and data processing.
 
Based on the purpose, Digital computers can be further classified as,
• General Purpose Computers
• Special Purpose Computers

Special purpose computer is one that is built for a specific application. General purpose computers are used for any type of applications. They can store different programs and do the jobs as per the instructions specified on those programs. Most of the computers that we see today, are general purpose computers. 

Hybrid Computers
A hybrid computer combines the desirable features of analog and digital computers. It is mostly used for automatic operations of complicated physical processes and machines. Now-a-days analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters are used for transforming the data into suitable form for either type of computation. For example, in hospital’s ICU, analog devices might measure the patients temperature, blood pressure and other vital signs. These measurements which are in analog might then be converted into numbers and supplied to digital components in the system. These components are used to monitor the patient’s vital sign and send signals if any abnormal readings are detected. Hybrid computers are mainly used for specialized tasks.
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Types of Computers based on Configuration/ construction/ capacity/ size

There are five different types of computers when we classify them based on their performance and capacity. The four types are-
     Super Computers
    Mainframe Computers
    Mini Computers
    Micro Computers
    Micro Processors

Super Computers
When we talk about types of computers, the first type that comes to our mind would be Super computers. They are the best in terms of processing capacity and also the most expensive ones. These computers can process billions of instructions per second. Normally, they will be used for applications which require intensive numerical computations such as stock analysis, weather forecasting etc. Other uses of supercomputers are scientific simulations, (animated) graphics, fluid dynamic calculations, nuclear energy research, electronic design, and analysis of geological data (e.g. in petrochemical prospecting). Perhaps the best known super computer manufacturer is Cray Research. Some of the "traditional" companies which produce super computers are Cray, IBM and Hewlett-Packard. As of July 2009, the IBM Roadrunner, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, is the fastest super computer in the world.

Mainframe Computers
Mainframe computers can also process data at very high speeds vi.e., hundreds of million instructions per second and they are also quite expensive. Normally, they are used in banking, airlines and railways etc for their applications.

Mini Computers
Mini computers are lower to mainframe computers in terms of speed and storage capacity. They are also less expensive than mainframe computers. Some of the features of mainframes will not be available in mini computers. Hence, their performance also will be less than that of mainframes.

Micro Computers
The invention of microprocessor (single chip CPU) gave birth to the much cheaper micro computers. They are further classified into
• Desktop Computers
• Laptop Computers
• Handheld Computers(PDAs)

a) Desktop Computers: Today the Desktop computers are the most popular computer systems. These desktop computers are also known as personal computers or simply PCs. They are usually easier to use and more affordable. They are normally intended for individual users for their word processing and other small application requirements.

b) Laptop Computers: Laptop computers are portable computers. They are lightweight computers with a thin screen. They are also called as notebook computers because of their small size. They can operate on batteries and hence are very popular with travellers. The screen folds down onto the keyboard when not in use.

c) Handheld Computers: Handheld computers or Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) are pen-based and also battery-powered. They are small and can be carried anywhere. They use a pen like stylus and accept handwritten input directly on the screen. They are not as powerful as desktops or laptops but they are used for scheduling appointments,storing addresses and playing games. They have touch screens which we use with a finger or a stylus.

Microprocessors

Microprocessors are what you find in DVD players, IPods, and other small devices.
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Monday, April 4, 2016

Discuss the Limitations of Computers



1. The computer can only perform the tasks you ask it to. You cannot expect a computer to be smarter than the person running it, though it can sometimes seem that way. Basically, as the person running it you have to tell the computer what tasks you want it to do. Yes, there are processes in the background, but these run based on preset information built in to the operating system.

2. A computer cannot generate information by itself. You have to give the computer operations, and even new instructions from time to time. Updates for example are a way to get new information to your computer to help streamline its functionality, but you still have to feed it that information by having an internet connection and automatic updates.

3. If you give the computer wrong data it is going to give you wrong information. The computer can only work with what you give it. It is just like giving directions to someone. If you tell someone to go right when they should have gone left, you are giving them the wrong information and they will not be able to find you.

4. Computers are unable to correct wrong instructions. The computer is always going to depend on your instructions, so you have to correct your mistake if you want it to work right.

5. Overall, a computer was built by humans and new technology comes out all the time. Hardware will eventually fade out and deteriorate. Given these properties it can be hard for a computer to remain a primo machine. These are five limitations computers have. There are more, but note most are based on human interaction with the computer, thus humans are part of the limitation a computer will have.
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Explain the Capabilities of a Computer



Capability is that it can do anything, as required and programmed by the programmers, and users. but the major limitation is that we, the Human cannot fill life into it.



Capabilities of computers

a. Its speed because it can process data faster



b. It repetitiveness because it can perform same operation tirelessly


c. Its accuracy because it have specific results



d. It can perform logical operations



e. It can store and recall info because it has data storage capability



f. Its self checking for it can verifies the accuracy of its own



g. Its self operating because its capable of executing instructions
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Sunday, April 3, 2016

Short Notes on Non-Performing Asset

The bank being financial intermediaries are in the business of accepting deposits for the purpose of lending and to augment their resources at times they borrow money from other sources and meet the ever increasing borrowing requirements of their customers. However, most of the business is done by banks with the funds which are collected from the public by way of deposits. They are, therefore, answerable to the public at large, who are keeping their funds with the banks by reposing trust in the ability of banks that they will not put the depositors interest to jeopardy.

A non-performing asset in the banking sector may be termed as an asset not contributing to the income of the bank. In other words, it is a zero yield asset when applied particularly to loan and advances. The actual concept of NPA is that it is an asset which ceases to yield income for the bank and that any income accrued from such asset shall not be treated as income until it is actually realized. Classification of an asset as NPA should be a based on record of recovery. Therefore, an asset is to be classified as NPA when there is a threat of loss for the recoverability is in doubt. In spite of wide ranging reform measures initiated in the banking sector, the problem of non-performing assets assumed a central place in issues relating to banking sector.
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Different Generation of computers with example.

The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each of the five generations of computers is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable computing devices. These are-

Different Generation of computers with example
First Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum Tubes
The first computers used vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory, and were often enormous, taking up entire rooms. They were very expensive to operate and in addition to using a great deal of electricity, generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions.

First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time.

The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples of first-generation computing devices. The UNIVAC was the first commercial computer delivered to a business client, the U.S. Census Bureau in 1951.

Second Generation (1956-1963) Transistors
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes and ushered in the second generation of computers. The transistor was invented in 1947 but did not see widespread use in computers until the late 1950s. The transistor was far superior to the vacuum tube, allowing computers to become smaller, faster, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable than their first-generation predecessors.

Second-generation computers moved from cryptic binary machine language to symbolic, or assembly, languages, which allowed programmers to specify instructions in words. High-level programming languages were also being developed at this time, such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN. These were also the first computers that stored their instructions in their memory, which moved from a magnetic drum to magnetic core technology. The first computers of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry.

Third Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits
The development of the integrated circuit was the hallmark of the third generation of computers. Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon chips, called semiconductors, which drastically increased the speed and efficiency of computers.

Instead of punched cards and printouts, users interacted with third generation computers through keyboards and monitors and interfaced with an operating system, which allowed the device to run many different applications at one time with a central program that monitored the memory. Computers for the first time became accessible to a mass audience because they were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors.

Fourth Generation (1971-Present) Microprocessors
The microprocessor brought the fourth generation of computers, as thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. What in the first generation filled an entire room could now fit in the palm of the hand. The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer—from the central processing unit and memory to input/output controls—on a single chip.

In 1981 IBM introduced its first computer for the home user, and in 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh. Microprocessors also moved out of the realm of desktop computers and into many areas of life as more and more everyday products began to use microprocessors.

Fifth Generation (Present and Beyond) Artificial Intelligence
Fifth generation computing devices, based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, though there are some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. The use of parallel processing and superconductors is helping to make artificial intelligence a reality.


Quantum computation and molecular and nanotechnology will radically change the face of computers in years to come. The goal of fifth-generation computing is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization.
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Monday, March 28, 2016

How to Reschedule the Non Performing Loans

Bangladesh Bank in its recent circular vide 08 dated 14.06.2012 has expressed overriding concern over the propensity of prolongation by even renewal of term loan/ extension of validity arbitrarily which has been termed as prolongation/ ever greening may sometime result in overstatement of capital, higher end maintenance of provisions than required though having low probability of repayment but carrie's full value on bank's balance sheet.


To curb this propensity Bangladesh Bank prescribed following instructions in the consideration process of loan rescheduling:

Reschedule
a.    The bank must have a policy approved by its Board defining the circumstances/ conditions under which a loan may be rescheduled but not in contravention of the contents of the Bangladesh Bank circular. The policy must highlight the controlling mechanisms for avoidance of routine rescheduling/ repeat rescheduling wherein lies the doubt of recovery of full amount of loan.


b.    For the unproductive sector such kind of repeat rescheduling should be restricted.


c.    The bank must identify the causes behind the loan becoming non performing.


d.    No consideration will be accorded for rescheduling of the borrower who is a habitual loan defaulters rather legal action should be initiated for recovery.


e.    At the time of applying rescheduling down payment to be realized at a time in cash.


f.    While considering the rescheduling proposal overall repayment capability of the borrower to be assessed properly.


You can read also

Steps for Recovering  

Non Performing Loans

g.    If a bank is satisfied in the due diligence process that there exists acceptable circumstances for rescheduling and the concern/ borrower has the ability to generate required cash flow for repayment in that case rescheduling proposal to be considered positively.


h. Rescheduling of any loan must be justified in right perspective and its positive impacts on the bank's credit portfolio/ long term profitability, capital adequacy, liquidity etc.
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